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1 year ago

The presence of tet genes in different members

The presence of tet GF 109203X in different members of Enterobacteriaceae family occurs due to transfer of drug resistance genes between bacteria through plasmids, transposons and integrons ( Pang et al., 1994, Nordmann and Poirel, 2005 and Pruden et al., 2006). Tetracycline resistance genes are located on mobile genetic elements, and can be transmissible between bacteria ( Roberts, 2005). Osun River is protected locally as a sacred place for worship, shrine and internationally recognized as a world heritage tourist centre in the state, yet the river water has still been polluted by antimicrobial resistance genes due to some agricultural and practices along its courses.

1 year ago

Total body energy content of M falcata showed a

The difference between available 2-APB reserves and energy consumption has been proposed to be indicative of an organism\'s overall condition (De Coen and Janssen, 2003), and a decrease in the available energy reserves can be used as a biomarker of metal stress (Scott-Fordsmand and Weeks, 2000). In this context, the energy status of mussels was studied to gain insight into the costs of living in an environment with metal pollution. We noted a negative significant correlation between the Cd concentration in the tissue and the body composition reserve in P. perna ( Table 7). Moreover, the lowest energy reserve for the same species at sites PC, CP and CS corresponds with highest tissue Cd load. The elevated level of internal Cd causes harmful biochemical shifts such as diseases, emphysemas, hypertension, chronic and acute effects on the metabolism, and usually disruption at all functional levels ( Fergusson, 1990). Moreover, metal resistance often involves an increased production of ligands, proteins, and enzymes involved in detoxification, which are energy demanding biological process. Therefore, a decline in an energy reserves or augmentations in the metabolic rates have been associated with metal toxicity in animals ( Moolman et al., 2007). Furthermore, corresponding to the finding of metal accumulation in mussels, energy reserve was also dependent (r = 0.3860, P < 0.05) on the salinity ( Fig. 5A). Low energy content was noted in mussels collected from fresh water site and exactly at the same sites a reverse pattern (i.e. elevation) was revealed for body burden for many metals (Cd, Cu, Fe and Mn); suggesting that the salinity gradient not only influences the metal uptake, but to certain extent is also associated with the dynamics of the energy budget and the osmoregulatory costs at low salinity.

1 year ago

Air samples were taken using

2.5. Statistical analysis
Other variables including; the floor level in which the cafés were located (i.e., basement/ground floor), types of ventilation systems (natural and artificial), types of the tobacco smoked (i.e., regular or Ximelagatran flavored), and employees\' general information were collected using a self-designed questionnaire. Levels of BTEX in indoor air were compared with occupational exposure limit levels. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test and nonparametric tests using SPSS version 16 and the confidence level was set at 95%. Path analysis was performed using Amos 21 in order to identify the factors that significantly affect the BTEX concentrations. Finally, a risk assessment was evaluated from the measured BTEX concentrations by using Eqs. (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5) (Majumdar et al., 2011), and tabulated in Table 2.
Table 2.
Details of risk assessment parameters (EPA, 2005).ValueUnitConcentration of the tracheids pollutant (C)–mg/m3Inhalation rate, adult (IRa)0.83m3/hExposure duration, adult (EDa)8h/dBody weight, adult (BWa)70kgDays per week exposure (D)6dWeeks of exposure (WK)48WeekYears of exposure (YE)30YYears in lifetime (YL)70YSlope factor or carcinogenic potency slope (SF)Benzene = 0.029 (Guo et al., 2004)(mg/kg·d)Reference dose (RfD)Benzene = 0.00855Toluene = 1.4Ethylbenzene = 0.286Xylene = 0.029(mg/kg·d)RfD = RfC (inhalation reference concentration mg/m3) × 20 (assumed adult inhalation rate m3/d) × 1/BWa (kg); based on RfCs for USEPA, IRIS (benzene = 0.03 mg/m3, toluene = 5 mg/m3, ethylbenzene = 1 mg/m3, xylenes = 0.1 mg/m3) (USEPA, 2007).Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV

1 year ago

As shown in Fig FT IR spectra of

Fig. 3. (a) Luminescence enhancement factor as a function of spacer thickness for silver nanoparticle layers shown in Fig. 2(a) and (d). (b) Absorption spectrum of the reference sample for photoluminescence measurements. (c) Photoluminescence spectra. The red curve is for the sample with the layer of large, closely packed silver nanoparticles [Fig. 2(a)] covered with a 30-nm-thick SOG layer. Black curve is photoluminescence spectrum of the reference sample. (For interpretation of the references to color in this PF562271 figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
To verify that no other effect was responsible for the long-range photoluminescence enhancement, we analyzed the data for signs of, for example, the microcavity effect and mirror-reflection effect at the silver nanoparticle layer interface.
Fig. 3(b) shows the absorption spectrum of the photoluminescence reference sample. The absorption was 54% at 375 nm, which was the excitation wavelength for photoluminescence measurements. This means that the absorption of the emission layer could still be approximately doubled at the excitation wavelength. For the sample with the silver nanoparticle layer, the excitation light could reflect at the surface of this layer, but this reflection is not possible in the reference sample. Such reflected light would again excite the emissive layer. However, the absorption of the emissive layer cannot exceed 100%. If the absorption is enhanced to 100%, the enhancement factor would be less than two-fold, which is not to sufficient to explain the enhancement factor observed in the sample of Fig. 3(a) (8.5-fold at 30 nm spacer thickness).

1 year ago

The crushing behavior of granulated particles

Here, SEM images of fracture surfaces and the density changes of green compact are used to evaluate the strength of granules. The observation point for SEM was the center of the compact under different CIP pressures of 10–100 MPa. In Fig. 7, a carcass of spherical shape remained until 60 MPa, but a homogeneous surface structure was completely formed under 80 MPa. The densities of green compacts showed a gradual increase in Fig.

1 year ago

Fig xA a Raman spectra acquired from

Ag2O with narrow band gap of ∼1.2 eV has been found to be an efficient visible light photocatalyst [26] and [27]. Recently, the composite photocatalysts based on Ag2O are considered as a great choice to enhance the photocatalytic activity owing to the synergistic effects of Ag2O and other component on promoting the A 844606 of the photo-generated electron–hole pairs [28], [29], [30], [31] and [32]. Yu et al. [33] fabricated Bi2WO6–Ag2O composites via an impregnation method and found that they showed better photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methyl orange (MO) with a degradation rate of 61% under visible light irradiation than pure Bi2WO6. Shi et al. [34] reported that g-C3N4–Ag2O composites prepared using a co-precipitation method had higher photocatalytic activity in the degradation of MO with a degradation rate of 90% under visible light irradiation than pure g-C3N4. Yu et al. [35] reported that Ag2CO3–Ag2O composites synthesized via a one-step calcination method exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in the degradation of Rhodamine B with a degradation rate of 98% under visible light irradiation. Similarly, the incorporation of Ag2O into Bi2O3 to form hybrid photocatalyst should be a promising method to improve the photocatalytic activity of Bi2O3. In fact, leaf primordia has been reported on fabricating Ag2O–Bi2O3 (BA) composites to improve the photocatalytic activity of Bi2O3[36]. However, this study has focused on photocatalytic degradation of dye, and there have been no reports on the utilization of for BA composites for photocatalytic degradation of phenol.

1 year ago

After sintering both samples were annealed at xA deg C

Similar high build-up and low build-up interfaces were achieved for the sample aged for 60 min. Two representative APT reconstructions are shown in Fig. 6a and c, where Fe (0.4 at.%) and Mo (5.7 at.%) iso-concentration surfaces are displayed. A high build-up of Mo is observed in region 1 in Fig. 6a and low (no) build-up of Mo in region 2 in Fig. 6c. Note that CHIR265 high build-up of Mo is also present at the tip in Fig. 6c. The solute distribution in region 1 and 2 are plotted in Fig. 6b and d obtained by placing analysis cylinders 1 and 2 (20 nm and 18 nm in diameter respectively) perpendicular to the two types of interfaces. After ageing for 240 min, only high build-up interfaces were observed in all atom probe datasets due to the further coarsening of α precipitates. An example is shown in Fig. 6e, with the corresponding 1D concentration profile (21 nm diameter) shown in Fig. 6f. The Mo and V build-up length extends over a longer distance (>25 nm, which was the length of the dataset), making it appear less pronounced compared to the samples aged for 2 min and 60 min. Another dataset from the specimen aged at 923 K for 240 min provides evidence that by this stage the α plates have grown considerably (see supplementary material).

1 year ago

Each sample was analysed for

To examine reliability of the vegetation mapping, 236 sampling points were randomly assigned. The number of validation points assigned to each basin was proportional to its size. Care was taken to ensure that the areas validated were representative of PFT coverage across the basin as a whole. Each point was uploaded onto a Garmin eTrex10 GPS and validated in the field during summer 2013. The pixel resolution of the CIR imagery (0.5 m) was less than the GPS position accuracy (~ 5 m) and to account for this, the PF-04880594 vegetation within a 5 m radius of the given point was recorded. Subsequently, in ArcGIS 10, a 5 m buffer was placed around each validation point and the percent coverage of each vegetation class falling within progesterone extracted. Using these data, a confusion matrix was generated, which cross correlates remote sensing classifications with points validated in the field, this enables the quantification of total error and misclassification rates for each PFT class (Campbell and Whynne, 2011). Validation points were deemed accurate if the majority class noted in the field matched the majority class extracted from the vegetation map.

1 year ago

The GR CALUX bioassay mdash a human osteosarcoma cell

Table 2.
3.3. GR agonistic activities in effluents
Fig. 3. Dose-dependent agonistic response of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent extracts collected in Japan in Simvastatin GR-CALUX bioassay. Values represent mean ± S.D. from three independent assays. Dex: dexamethasone.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 4. GR agonistic activities in effluent extracts from sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in Ehime (EE), Kyoto (KE-1 to -4), Osaka (KE-5 to -8), and Hyogo (KE-9) in Japan. Effluent samples were collected in May (black circles), July (gray circles) and December (white circles) 2012. Values represent the means from three independent assays. In hypertension study, the LOD was 3.0 ng Dex-EQ L− 1 for STP effluent samples.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Table 3.
3.4. Quantitative evaluation of GC contribution to total GR agonistic activity
3.5. Implication of the obtained results

1 year ago

At heq xA xA xA h y AEP xA xA

This result is strongly affected by the price of electricity from the wind farm. If a lower price were considered (e.g. 40 €/MW h, which was the price in [26]) an almost equally reduction would be obtained on the LCOE (about 70 €/MW h). The price of natural gas has a smaller influence on the LCOE. For a variation of 20% of the natural gas price, the LCOE varies less than 10%.